DRUGS & CONDITIONS

WHAT IS OSTEOPOROSIS?

Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become weak and brittle. If left unchecked, osteoporosis can progress painlessly until a bone breaks (fracture). Any bone can be affected, but of special concern are fractures of the hips, spine, and wrists. If diagnosed early, progression of osteoporosis can be slowed and complications prevented.

© 2009 Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Throughout life, old bone is removed and new bone is added to the skeleton. During childhood and adolescence, new bone is added faster than old bone is removed. As a result, bones become heavier, larger, and denser. Peak bone mass is reached around age 30. From that point on, more bone is lost than is replaced, usually at a slow rate. When women reach menopause and their estrogen level drops, bone loss begins to more rapidly exceed bone replacement. If not treated, excessive bone losses may lead to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is more likely to occur if optimal bone mass was not achieved during the bone-building years.

Bone density also plays a role in bone health. Bone density is determined in part by the amount of calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals contained within the framework of the bone. As the mineral content of a bone (especially calcium) decreases, the bone becomes weaker. Getting enough calcium and vitamin D and exercising regularly can help ensure that bones stay strong throughout life.

An estimated 10 million Americans have osteoporosis; 80% are women. An additional 18 million people have low bone mass, which puts them at risk of osteoporosis. In all, osteoporosis affects nearly 40% of women over the age of 50.

References

National Institutes of Health website. Available at: http://www.nih.gov/

National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.nof.org/

Nelson ME, Wernick S. Strong Women, Strong Bones: Everything You Need to Prevent, Treat, and Beat Osteoporosis. Putnam; 2000.


Last reviewed September 2010 by Marcin Chwistek, MD

Last Updated: 9/20/2010

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at healthlibrarysupport@ebscohost.com

DRUGS & CONDITIONS

RISK FACTORS FOR OSTEOPOROSIS

A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition. It is possible to develop osteoporosis with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing osteoporosis. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.

Risk Factors for Women

Women are at greater risk of developing osteoporosis than men. This is because they have less bone tissue than men and have a sudden drop in hormones—especially estrogen—at menopause.

Estrogen Deficiencies

Estrogen deficiencies occur as a result of:

Other Risk Factors

These are some other risk factors may increase a woman's risk of developing osteoporosis:

Risk Factors for Men

Men have a higher bone density and lose calcium at a slower rate than women. However, after age 50, bone loss gradually increases. Risk factors for bone loss in men include:

Hormonal Deficiencies

In men, deficiencies of testosterone and, to a much minor extent, estrogen play a role in the development of osteoporosis. This may be related to:

Risk Factors in Both Sexes

Dietary Factors

Your risk of developing osteoporosis increases if you have a restrictive diet (eg, not getting enough calcium or vitamin D). An excess of phosphorous in your diet may increase your risk if your calcium and/or vitamin D intakes are low. Excessive use of alcohol, coffee, or tea may also increase your risk of osteoporosis.

Lack of Exercise

Regular exercise, especially weight-bearing and resistance exercise, helps strengthen bones. Therefore, if you do not exercise on a regular basis, you may increase your risk of developing osteoporosis. Individuals who do not exercise regularly also tend to have weaker muscles and poorer balance, which can lead to falls and fractures.

Smoking

Smoking impairs bone, muscle, and joint health. If you smoke, you have a higher risk of developing osteoporosis.

Bone Structure and Body Weight

Small-boned women and underweight people of both sexes have an increased risk of osteoporosis. Individuals who are short, thin, and have narrow hips are at increased risk of low bone density and fracture.

Lack of Sunlight

The effect of sun on the skin is a primary source of vitamin D, which aids bone formation. If you get very little sun exposure and have a low dietary intake of vitamin D, you may be at increased risk of osteoporosis.

Ethnic Background

Caucasian, Asian, and Hispanic women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than those of other ethnic groups. Though most ethnic studies have focused on women, it is believed that men in these ethnic groups carry a parallel but lower risk.

Medications

The long-term use of certain medicines increases your risk of osteoporosis. Examples include:

Talk to your doctor before stopping or reducing your medicine.

Chronic Diseases

Certain chronic diseases may increase your risk for developing osteoporosis.

Diseases During Childhood

If you had certain conditions during childhood, you may be at an increased risk for developing osteoporosis later in life. Examples of these conditions include:


References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/

Ho-Pham LT, Nguyen ND, Nguyen TV. Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:943-950

National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.nof.org/

Osteoporosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php Updated December 2009. Accessed December 22, 2009

Osteoporosis. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=15topicID=81 Updated December 2009. Accessed December 29, 2009.

Osteoporosis: frequently asked questions. Womens Health.gov. Available at: http://www.womenshealth.gov/faq/osteoporosis.cfm Updated September 22, 2009. Accessed December 22, 2009.

1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php Loke YK, Singh S, Furberg CD. Long-term use of thiazolidinediones and fractures in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2009;180:32-39.

1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php Carbone LD, Johnson KC, Bush AJ, et al. Loop diuretic use and fracture in postmenopausal women: findings from the Women's Health Initiative. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:132-140.

12/29/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C. Predicting risk of osteoporotic fracture in men and women in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QFractureScores. BMJ. 2009;339:b4229.


Last reviewed September 2010 by Marcin Chwistek, MD

Last Updated: 9/20/2010

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at healthlibrarysupport@ebscohost.com

DRUGS & CONDITIONS

SYMPTOMS OF OSTEOPOROSIS

Osteoporosis is often referred to as a silent disease. The associated bone loss usually occurs without symptoms. Since many people mistakenly believe that all medical conditions cause symptoms. As a result, they do not see a doctor until the condition is far advanced.

© 2009 Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

In the early stages of osteoporosis, there is usually no pain or other symptoms. Once the bones have been weakened, you may have the following symptoms:


References

National Institutes of Health website. Available at: http://www.nih.gov/

National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.nof.org/


Last reviewed September 2010 by Marcin Chwistek, MD

Last Updated: 9/20/2010

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at healthlibrarysupport@ebscohost.com

DRUGS & CONDITIONS

SCREENING FOR OSTEOPOROSIS

The purpose of screening is early diagnosis and treatment. Screening tests are usually administered to people without current symptoms, but who may be at high risk for certain diseases or conditions.

Screening Tests

The main screening test for osteoporosis is called a bone mineral density (BMD) test. This is a painless, noninvasive method of measuring your bone mass. A BMD test can detect osteoporosis before a fracture occurs and can estimate your risk of having a fracture in the future.

With a BMD test, your bone mass is measured and then compared to that of either (1) a healthy 30-year-old adult (T-score) or (2) the expected bone mass of someone your age (Z-score). Because low BMD is common among older adults, comparison to peers your age can be misleading. The results of a BMD test will indicate whether you have normal bone density, low bone density (called osteopenia), or full-blown osteoporosis.

There are several types of BMD tests that are used to screen for or diagnose osteoporosis.

Screening Guidelines

Currently there is no consensus within the medical community regarding BMD screening tests. The decision whether to screen is usually made on an individual basis based on your risk factors. The National Osteoporosis Foundation suggests initial screening of the following postmenopausal women:

For older men, the American College of Physicians (ACP) recommends that your doctor assesses your risk factors for osteoporosis. The ACP also recommends that you have a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (a type of BMD test) done if you are at an increased risk and are a candidate for drug therapy.

References

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.aaos.org/

National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.nof.org/

5/16/08 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamicmedical.com/what.php Qaseem A, Snow V, Shekelle P, Hopkins R Jr, Forciea MA, Owens DK; Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee of the American College of Physicians. Screening for osteoporosis in men: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:680-684


Last reviewed September 2010 by Marcin Chwistek, MD

Last Updated: 9/20/2010

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at healthlibrarysupport@ebscohost.com

DRUGS & CONDITIONS

TALKING TO YOUR DOCTOR ABOUT OSTEOPOROSIS

You have a unique medical history. Therefore, it is essential to talk with your doctor about your personal risk factors and/or experience with osteoporosis. By talking openly and regularly with your doctor, you can take an active role in your care.

General Tips for Gathering Information

Here are some tips that will make it easier for you to talk to your doctor:

Specific Questions to Ask Your Doctor

About Your Risk of Developing Osteoporosis

About Treatment Options

About Lifestyle Changes

About Your Outlook

References

National Institutes of Health, Osteoporosis, and Related Bone Diseases Resource Center.

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/bone/

National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.nof.org/


Last reviewed September 2010 by Marcin Chwistek, MD

Last Updated: 9/20/2010

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at healthlibrarysupport@ebscohost.com

DRUGS & CONDITIONS

PREVENTION AND REDUCING BONE LOSS

In three words: change your lifestyle. As with most health issues, diet and exercise are the key to getting and staying healthy. Here are some tips:

References

Rapuri PB, Gallagher JC, Kinyamu HK, Ryschon KL. Caffeine intake increases the rate of bone loss in elderly women and interacts with vitamin D receptor genotypes. Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Nov;74(5):694-700

Ward KD, Klesges RC. A meta-analysis of the effects of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density. Calcif Tissue Int 2001 May;68(5):259-70

van der Voort DJ, Geusens PP, Dinant GJ. Risk factors for osteoporosis related to their outcome: fractures. Osteoporos Int 2001;12(8):630-8

Osteoporosis Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/3rduspstf/osteoporosis/

Female Athlete Triad. The Nemours Foundation. http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/sports/triad.html

Anorexia Nervosa and Osteoporosis. National Osteoporosis Society.


Reviewed by Linda Tsai, M.D., a staff attending physician at Rochester General Hospital (affiliated with University of Rochester School of Medicine) in Rochester, New York.

Last updated March 30, 2009

Copyright © 1999 Consumer Health Interactive

DRUGS & CONDITIONS

PROTECT YOURSELF FROM BONE FRACTURES AND BREAKS

Just remember that your bones aren't as strong as they used to be, even if your muscles are. Falls are especially dangerous for people with osteoporosis. Here are some ways to prevent injury:

References

Rapuri PB, Gallagher JC, Kinyamu HK, Ryschon KL. Caffeine intake increases the rate of bone loss in elderly women and interacts with vitamin D receptor genotypes. Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Nov;74(5):694-700

Ward KD, Klesges RC. A meta-analysis of the effects of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density. Calcif Tissue Int 2001 May;68(5):259-70

van der Voort DJ, Geusens PP, Dinant GJ. Risk factors for osteoporosis related to their outcome: fractures. Osteoporos Int 2001;12(8):630-8

Osteoporosis Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/3rduspstf/osteoporosis/

Female Athlete Triad. The Nemours Foundation. http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/sports/triad.html

Anorexia Nervosa and Osteoporosis. National Osteoporosis Society.

Disease Statistics. National Osteoporosis Foundation.


Reviewed by Linda Tsai, M.D., a staff attending physician at Rochester General Hospital (affiliated with University of Rochester School of Medicine) in Rochester, New York.

Last updated March 30, 2009

Copyright © 1999 Consumer Health Interactive

DRUGS & CONDITIONS

REDUCING YOUR RISK OF OSTEOPOROSIS

Your bones grow and strengthen during childhood, but bone accumulation is not completed until you are in your twenties. The bone mass you attain before age 30 is perhaps the most important determinant of life-long skeletal health. Genetic factors exert a strong influence on your peak bone mass, but physiologic, environmental, and modifiable lifestyle factors can also play a significant role. Among these are adequate nutrition and body weight, exposure to sex hormones at puberty, and physical activity.

Maximizing bone mass early in life is the most crucial way to reduce the impact of bone loss related to aging. Childhood is also a critical time for the development of lifestyle habits conducive to maintaining good bone health throughout life. For example, exercising promotes strong bones. Cigarette smoking, which usually starts in adolescence, may negatively affect your ability to achieve peak bone mass.

Here are some tips on reducing your risk of osteoporosis:

Eat a Healthy Diet

Good nutrition is essential for normal growth. A balanced diet, adequate calories, and appropriate nutrients are the foundation for development of all your tissues, including bone. Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is thought to contribute to the development of osteoporosis.

Calcium

Calcium is the nutrient most important for attaining peak bone mass and for preventing and treating osteoporosis. Depending on your age, recommended calcium intakes for adults fall between 1,000 and 1,300 mg per day, according to the National Academy of Sciences. A study published in Archives of Internal Medicine reported that taking 1,200 mg a day of calcium helped to increase bone mineral density in men.

You can increase your calcium intake by eating more calcium-rich foods such as low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, sardines, soy foods, and broccoli. Many foods such as orange juice, breakfast bars, and cereals are now fortified with calcium, as well. You can increase the calcium content of home-baked goods by adding non-fat powered dry milk to them. If you are unable to get adequate calcium in your diet, talk to your healthcare provider or a registered dietitian (RD) about a supplement.

High dietary protein, caffeine, phosphorus, and sodium can adversely affect calcium balance, but the effects may not be as important in individuals with adequate calcium intakes.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is required for optimal calcium absorption and thus is also important for your bone health. Your skin manufactures vitamin D in response to direct exposure to sunlight. Approximately 10-15 minutes of sunlight exposure two to three times a week is enough to meet the requirements for vitamin D in most people.

Older adults and people who are exposed to little sunlight may have difficulty meeting vitamin D requirements. Most infants and young children in the US have adequate vitamin D intake because of supplementation and fortification of milk. During adolescence, when consumption of dairy products decreases, vitamin D intake may be inadequate, and this may negatively affect calcium absorption.

Experts recommend a daily intake of between 400 and 800 international units (IU) of vitamin D. You can get more vitamin D by getting at least 15 minutes of sunshine two to three times per week, drinking vitamin D-fortified milk, or taking a vitamin D supplement. Remember that excess vitamin D from supplements or cod liver oil can be toxic!

Other Nutrients

Other nutrients have been evaluated in relation to bone health. A recent study showed that Japanese postmenopausal women who took vitamin K supplements experienced a reduced rate of fractures. Due to side effects and medication interactions, talk to your doctor or dietician before you begin taking dietary supplements.

Soy

Researchers are investigating whether soy can reduce the risk of osteoporosis by improving bone mineral density. The results so far have been inconclusive, though. Talk to your doctor to see if increasing soy in your diet is right for you.

Exercise Regularly

There is strong evidence that regular physical activity in childhood and adolescence contributes to higher peak bone mass. Exercise during later years, combined with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, may help slow the decline in bone density associated with aging. Some evidence indicates that weight-bearing and resistance exercises are most likely to be beneficial.

To help reduce bone loss, engage in regular weight-bearing exercise. Examples include walking, running, tennis, dancing, hiking, and racquetball. Strength training can also help increase your bone density and keep your muscles strong, so that you are less likely to fall.

Do Not Smoke

A study reported in the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopedics suggests that smoking puts people at higher risk for developing osteoporosis.

Avoid Excessive Alcohol and Caffeine

Alcohol has several negative affects on bones. Alcohol can interfere with vitamin D metabolism, which results in impaired calcium absorption. It also increases magnesium excretion. In addition, alcoholics tend to have diets that are lacking in many key nutrients, including calcium and vitamin D.

Heavy drinking can affect hormone production in both women and men. In premenopausal women, chronic alcohol use can result in irregular menstrual cycles. This increases the risk of osteoporosis. Testosterone production may be affected in alcoholic men. Low testosterone levels have been linked to a decrease in bone formation.

Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of fracture. Alcohol affects your balance and gait making you more prone to stumble, trip, or run into objects.

The relationship between caffeine use and bone health is not as clear-cut. Studies on the effect of caffeine on the bones have yielded mixed results. On the basis of the studies to date, current recommendations are for moderate caffeine consumption, which equals two or less cups of coffee per day.

Talk to Your Doctor About Preventive Medicines

Medicine, such as estrogens, alendronate, risedronate, among others, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. These medications slow or stop bone breakdown.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and combined HRT have been used for both the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. ERT contains estrogen alone; combined HRT contains estrogen plus progestin. ERT and combined HRT have been shown to reduce bone loss, increase bone density in the spine and hip, and reduce the risk of spine and hip fractures in postmenopausal women. ERT is available as a pill or skin patch; HRT is available in pill form.

Although ERT/combined HRT may cut the risk of osteoporosis in half, it's important to note that recent research shows a strong association between longer-term ERT or HRT use and a significantly increased risk of invasive breast cancer, strokes, heart attacks, and blood clots. Be sure to discuss all of the health risks and benefits of hormone therapy with your doctor to determine if it is right for you.

Alendronate Sodium (Fosamax)

Alendronate is from a class of drugs known as bisphosphonates. It is used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. It should be taken with a full glass of water first thing in the morning at least a half hour before eating, drinking, or taking other medicines. Individuals should remain in an upright position for at least a half hour after taking this medication.

Risedronate Sodium (Actonel)

Risedronate is also a bisphosphonate. It slows bone loss, increases bone density, and reduces the risk of spine and nonspine fractures. It should be taken with a full glass of water first thing in the morning at least a half hour before eating, drinking, or taking other medicines. Individuals should remain in an upright position at least a half hour after taking this medication.

Zoledronic Acid (Zometa)

Zolendronic acid is the most potent bisphosphonate available-so potent, in fact, that it can only be given by injection. Partly because of its inconvenient form of administration, zolendronic acid has been largely reserved for use in patients seriously ill with cancers affecting their bones. However, a recent study suggests that once yearly injections in patients with a recent hip fracture due to minimal trauma (like those that occur with osteoporosis) can reduce the risk of a second fracture.

Researchers treated 2,127 patients who had a hip fracture surgically repaired within the previous 90 days with either annual injections of zoledronic acid (5 mg) or a placebo for up to five years. All subjects (who averaged 75 years of age) also received vitamin D and calcium supplements. Compared to those who were assigned placebo, patients who received the zoledronic acid were significantly less likely to suffer recurrent fractures of the hip and elsewhere over two to three years of follow-up. They were also more likely to survive.

Raloxifene (Evista)

Raloxifene is one of a class of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). It helps prevent bone loss at the spine, hip, and total body and may increase bone mass. In some studies, after three years of use, raloxifene reduced the risk of spine fractures by about 50%. Raloxifene is available as a pill and should be taken once a day, with or without meals.

Side effects are not common. Those reported include hot flashes and deep vein thrombosis.

Calcitonin (Miacalcin)

Calcitonin is a naturally occurring hormone that helps slow bone loss, increase bone density, reduce the risk of spinal fractures, and may relieve the pain of bone fractures. It is given to women who are at least five years past menopause. It is taken as an injection or a nasal spray.

Have a Bone Mineral Density Test

Osteoporosis often has no symptoms and can go undetected for years. For that reason, early diagnosis is important. A bone mineral density test (BMD) can diagnose osteoporosis and determine your fracture risk. BMD is a painless and noninvasive test that measures the density (mass) of your bones. Talk to your healthcare provider about whether you are a candidate for a BMD test.

Talk to Your Doctor About Your Medicines

Some medicines that you are taking may contribute to osteoporosis. Examples of these medicines include:

References

National Institutes of Health website. Available at: http://www.nih.gov/

National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.nof.org/

DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamicmedical.com/what.php Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, et al. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med . 2006;166:1256-1261

DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamicmedical.com/what.php Lyles KW, Colón-Emeric CS, Magaziner JS. Zoledronic acid and clinical fractures and mortality after hip fracture. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 26. [Epub ahead of print]

DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamicmedical.com/what.php Reid IR, Ames R, Mason B, et al. Randomized controlled trial of calcium supplementation in healthy, nonosteoporotic, older men. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:2276-2282.

DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamicmedical.com/what.php Carbone LD, Johnson KC, Bush AJ, et al. Loop diuretic use and fracture in postmenopausal women: findings from the Women's Health Initiative. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:132-140.

3/12/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php Alekel DL, Van Loan MD, Koehler KJ, et al. The soy isoflavones for reducing bone loss (SIRBL) study: a 3-y randomized controlled trial in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(1):218-230.


Last reviewed September 2010 by Marcin Chwistek, MD

Last Updated: 9/20/2010

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at healthlibrarysupport@ebscohost.com

DRUGS & CONDITIONS

SUPPORT AND RESOURCES

HHS Office of Women's Health: Osteoporosis

Address:

US Department of Health and Human Services—Office on Women's Health

Phone:

1-800-994-9662

Description of services provided:

The Office on Women's Health (OWH) vision is to ensure that "All Women and Girls are Healthier and Have a Better Sense of Well Being." Its mission is to "provide leadership to promote health equity for women and girls through sex/gender-specific approaches." The website provides health and wellness information, statistics and health tools for the public and medical professionals.

Internet Address:

Women's Health.org

www.4women.gov

National Osteoporosis Foundation

Address:

1232 22nd Street NW
Washington, DC 20037-1292

Phone:

202-223-2226

Description of services provided:

At the NOF's website, you'll find "Fast Facts" on all aspects of osteoporosis-from risk factors to treatment options. You can also search a nation-wide database of healthcare professionals who treat osteoporosis, purchase educational materials, join a support group, and become an advocate for osteoporosis research and education.

Internet Address:

http://www.nof.org/

NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center

Address:

Bldg. 31, Rm. 4C02
31 Center Dr., MSC 2350
Bethesda, MD 20892-3676

Phone:

301-496-8190

Description of services provided:

This site covers osteoporosis as well as more rare bone diseases. In addition to the basics, this organization provides information on osteoporosis in men, Asian-American women, and Latino women. Several handouts are in Spanish, while others are large print or low-literacy.

Internet Address:

http://www.niams.nih.gov/bone/


Last reviewed September 2010 by Marcin Chwistek, MD

Last Updated: 9/20/2010

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at healthlibrarysupport@ebscohost.com